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South Africa

Timeframe: 1977-1994
Nature of Conflict: Apartheid
and Proliferation of WMD

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • End Apartheid

  • Stop supply of arms and dual use materials to create nuclear weapons

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Export and Import Control

1280px-Flag_of_South_Africa.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms embargo

  • (additional voluntary boycott of wine, sporting events and diplomatic measures)

Somalia

Timeframe: 1992-Ongoing
Nature of Conflict: Intrastate
and Terrorism

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Counter-terrorism

  • Cease hostilities

  • Negotiate settlement

  • Peace enforcement

  • Support peace building, good governance, and human rights

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

  • Export and Import Control

1280px-Flag_of_Somalia.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

  • Asset Freeze

  • Inadmissibility

  • Ban on Charcoal Imports

  • Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Components Ban

Rhodesia

Timeframe: 1968-1979
Nature of Conflict: White Minority Rule

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • End white minority rule

  • End all measures of political repression, including arrests, detentions, trials and executions which violate fundamental freedoms and rights of the people of Southern Rhodesia

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

  • Export and Import Control

Flag_of_Rhodesia_(1964–1968).svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Inadmissibility

  • Ban of flights from Southern Rhodeisa and vessels to Southern Rhodesia

  • Arms embargo

  • Export and Import controls on petroleum and petroleum Products

Eritrea

Timeframe: 2009-2020
Nature of Conflict: Interstate

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Cease hostilities

  • Negotiate settlement

  • Withdraw forces

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

  • Export and Import Control

*United Nations lifted sanctions in 2018

255px-Flag_of_Eritrea.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Asset Freeze

  • Technical Assistance Ban

  • Arms Embargo

  • Financial Prohibitions

Liberia (3 Phases of Sanctions)

Timeframe: 1992-2017
Nature of Conflict: Intrastate

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Cease hostilities

  • Negotiate settlement

  • Improve forest and diamond management practices

  • Support peace building and good governance, and the judicial process

  • Democracy support

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

  • Export and Import Control 

*United Nations lifted sanctions in 2016

255px-Flag_of_Liberia.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

  • Diamond and timber import ban

  • Inadmissibility Asset Freeze

Angola (mainly UNITA)

Timeframe: 1993-2003

Nature of Conflict: Intrastate

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Cease hostilities

  • Peace enforcement

  • Support peace building, good governance, and human rights

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

  • Export and Import Control 

255px-Flag_of_Angola.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

  • Inadmissibility

  • Aviation Ban

  • Asset Freeze

  • Financial Assistance Freeze

  • Diamond and Petroleum Import Ban

Rwanda

Timeframe: 1994-2009
Nature of Conflict: Intrastate

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Cease hostilities

  • Peace enforcement

  • Support peace building, good governance, and human rights

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Export and Import Control

*United Nations repealed sanctions in 2008

255px-Flag_of_Rwanda.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

Sierra Leone

Timeframe: 1998-2013
Nature of Conflict: Intrastate

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Cease hostilities

  • Peace enforcement

  • Support peace building, good governance, and human rights

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

  • Export and Import Control

*United Nations imposed sanctions in 1997 and lifted sanctions in 2010

255px-Flag_of_Sierra_Leone.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

  • Inadmissibility

  • Asset Freeze

  • Diamond and Petroleum Import Ban

Ethiopia/Eritrea

Timeframe: 2000-2001
Nature of Conflict: Intrastate

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Cease hostilities

  • Negotiate settlement

  • Withdraw forces

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Export and Import Control

Eritreiopia flag.jpg

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

  • Technical Assistance Ban

The Democratic Republic of Congo

Timeframe: 2003-Ongoing

Nature of Conflict: Intrastate

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Cease hostilities

  • Peace enforcement

  • Support peace building, good governance, and human rights

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

  • Export and Import Control

*United Nations intiated sanctions in 2003

227px-Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

  • Inadmissibility

  • Asset Freeze

  • Technical and Financial Assistance Ban

  • Guidelines for mineral extraction from Democratic Republic of Congo

Cote D'Ivoire

Timeframe: 2005-2017
Nature of Conflict: Intrastate and Unconstitutional Change of Government

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Cease hostilities

  • Peace enforcement

  • Support peace building, good governance and constitutional change of government

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

  • Export and Import Control

*United Nations intiated sanctions in 2003 and lifted them in 2016

125px-Flag_of_Côte_d'Ivoire.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

  • Inadmissibility

  • Technical Assistance Ban

  • Asset Freeze

Libya I

Timeframe: 1992-2003
Nature of Conflict: Support to Terrorism

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Cease all support to terrorism

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

  • Export and Import Control

125px-Flag_of_Libya.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

  • Inadmissibility

  • Deny permission for Libyan aircraft to land

  • Export Ban (goods used in refinement and export of oil, including pumps, boilers, furnaces, and catalysts)

  • Reduced number of personnel at Libyan missions

Sudan I

Timeframe: 1999-2001
Nature of Conflict: Support to Terrorism

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Cease all support to terrorism

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

125px-Flag_of_Sudan.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Aviation Sanctions (never came into effect)

  • Inadmissibility

  • Diplomatic Sanctions

Sudan II

Timeframe: 2004-Ongoing
Nature of Conflict: Intrastate and Human Rights Violations

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Cease hostilities

  • End all acts of violence and violations of human rights and international humanitarian law by all parties to the crisis, in particular by the Janjaweed, including indiscriminate attacks on civilians, rapes, forced displacements, and acts of violence especially those with an ethnic dimension, and expressing its utmost concern at the consequences of the conflict in Darfur on the civilian population, including women, children, internally displaced persons, and refugees

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Export and Import Control

125px-Flag_of_Sudan.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

  • Technical and Financial Assistance Ban

  • Asset Freeze

*UN requires a travel ban, GAC has not invoked the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

Haiti

Timeframe: 1993-1994
Nature of Conflict: Intrastate and Unconstitutional Change of Government 

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Reinstatement of the legitimate Government of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide

  • Cease hostilities

  • Cease climate of fear of persecution and economic dislocation which could increase the number of Haitians seeking refuge in neighbouring Member States

125px-Flag_of_Haiti.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

  • Inadmissibility

  • Aviation Ban

  • Asset Freeze

  • Import Bans (especially pertoleum products)

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

  • Export and Import Control

Al Qaeda/Taliban, ISIL and Affiliates

Timeframe: 1999-Ongoing
Nature of Conflict: Terrorism

 

 

Sanctions Objectives(s) of UN, EU, or US:

  • Cessation of terrorist activities by these groups

*UN separates ISIL from the other terrorist organizations but Canada lists them together

Flag_of_Jihad + ISIL flag.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

  • Asset Freeze

  • Financial Prohibitions

  • Technical and Financial Assistance Freeze

  • Inadmissibility

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Criminal Code

  • Export and Import Control

  • Anti-Terrorism Act

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

North Korea

Timeframe: 1996-Ongoing
Nature of Conflict: End Proliferation of WMD and Sponsorship of Terrorism

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • End proliferation and testing of nuclear weapons

  • End support to terrorism

125px-Flag_of_North_Korea.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo (including dual use items to proliferate WMD)

  • Luxury Goods Ban

  • Asset Freeze

  • Technical and financial Assistance Ban

  • Ban on bunkering services

  • Inadmissibility

  • Coal, minerals and sectoral ban

  • Ban on refined petroleum products

  • Seafood ban

  • Ban on textiles from DPRK

  • Ban on sale of helicopters or other new or used vessels to DPRK

  • Ban on DPRK supplying, selling or transferring seafood

  • Expulsion of DPRK diplomats, government representatives, other DPRK nationals acting in a governmental or representative office capacity, and foreign nationals that are working on behalf or at the direction of a designated person and/or entity or of a person and/or entity assisting in sanctions evasions or violating the resolutions

  • Inspect cargo destined to or originating from the DPRK or brokered by the DPRK that is within or transiting their territories including personal luggage and checked baggage of individuals entering into or departing from the DPRK that may be used to transport items the supply, sale or transfer of which is prohibited.

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Special Economic Measures Act since 2011

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

  • Export and Import Control

  • Old Age Security Act

  • Canada Pension Plan

  • Canada Shipping Act

  • Garnishment, Attachment and Pension Diversion Act

  • Pension Benefits Division Act

  • Bank Act

  • Proceeds of Crime Act

  • Insurance Companies Act

  • Cooperative Credit Associations Act

  • Trust and Loans Companies Act

Former Yugoslavia

Timeframe: 1991-1996
Nature of Conflict: Intrastate to Interstate

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Cease hostilities

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Export and Import Control

150px-Flag_of_Yugoslavia_(1992–2003);_Fl

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia I (Serbia)

Timeframe: 1992-2006
Nature of Conflict: Intrastate and Extreme Violence

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Cease hostilities and ethnic cleansing

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

  • Export and Import Control

150px-Flag_of_Yugoslavia_(1992–2003);_Fl

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

  • Financial Freeze

  • Inadmissibility

  • Aviation Ban

  • Asset Freeze

  • Diplomatic Sanctions (including sports and cultural sanctions)

  • Import and Export Ban on crude oil, petroleum, iron, steel, rubber and chemicals

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia II (Serbia) Against Kosovo

Timeframe: 1998-2001
Nature of Conflict: Intrastate and Support to Terrorism

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Cease hostilities with Kosovars

  • Kosovars to end support to terrorism

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Export and Import Control

Flag Kosovo+Yugoslavia.jpg

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

Iraq and Kuwait

Timeframe: 1990-2003
Nature of Conflict: Interstate and Support to WMD

Irakuwait.png

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Withdraw from Kuwait immediately

  • End proliferation of WMD

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

  • Asset Freeze

  • Inadmissibility

  • Export and Import Ban (petroleum products not specifically exempt)

  • Dual-use Time Ban

  • Technical and Financial Aid and Assistance Ban

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

  • Export and Import Control

*Iraq expelled from Kuwait in 1991 all sanctions but arms embargo lifted in 2003

Iraq

Timeframe: 2003-Ongoing
Nature of Conflict: Intrastate and Support to Terrorism

800px-Flag_of_Iraq.svg.png

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Support peace building, good governance

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

  • Asset Freeze

  • Ban of Exchange or Selling of Iraqi Cultural Items

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Export and Import Control

Iran

Timeframe: 2006-Ongoing
Nature of Conflict: Proliferation of WMD

630px-Flag_of_Iran.svg.png

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • End Proliferation of WMD

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

  • Asset Freeze

  • Inadmissibility

  • Technical and Financial Assistance and Support Freeze

  • Import and Export Restrictions

  • Financial Prohibitions

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

  • Export and Import Control

  • Special Economic Measures Act since 2010

*United Nations resolutions were terminated in 2015 given Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action but effective on 10th anniversary

Hariri (Lebanon)

Timeframe: 2007-Ongoing,
2009-Ongoing
Nature of Conflict: Assassination of PM Hariri and support to Terrorism

1280px-Flag_of_Lebanon.svg.png

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Decry assasination of Prime Minister Hariri

  • End support to terrorism

  • End violence

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

  • Technical Assistance Ban

*United Nations applied an Asset Freeze and Travel Ban

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Export and Import Control

*United Nations adopted sanctions in 2005

Myanmar I

Timeframe: 2007-2012
Nature of Conflict: Threatening Peace and Security

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • End human rights violations especially against Rohingya including their forced displacement

  • End unconstitutional changes to government

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Special Economic Measures Act

1920px-Flag_of_Myanmar.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Import and Export Ban

  • No Transhipment

  • Technical Assistance Ban

  • Asset Freeze

  • Financial Assistance Ban

  • Overflight Ban

Myanmar II

Timeframe: 2012-Ongoing
Nature of Conflict: Threatening Peace and Security, Human Rights Violations

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • End human rights violations especially against Rohingya including their forced displacement

  • End unconstitutional changes to government

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Special Economic Measures Act

1920px-Flag_of_Myanmar.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Asset freeze against select senior military officials who have played a role in the military operations against the Rohingya in Myanmar’s Rakhine State in August 2017

  • Technical Assistance Ban

Myanmar III

Timeframe: 2018-Ongoing
Nature of Conflict: Justice for Victims of Corrupt Foreign Officials Act

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • End human rights violations especially against Rohingya including their forced displacement

  • End unconstitutional changes to government

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

  • Justice for Victims of Corrupt Foreign Officials Act Canadian Shipping Act

1920px-Flag_of_Myanmar.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Asset freeze, financial prohibition and travel ban against Major General Maung Maung Soe so note Immigration and Refugee Protection Act for this one only

Myanmar

Date: December 10, 2021
Nature of Conflict: Breach of International Peace and Security

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Put additional pressure on the Tatmadaw to change its behaviour, including to immediately and genuinely engage with ASEAN-led peace efforts, immediately halting violence, initiating inclusive peace dialogues, and granting unrestricted humanitarian access.

  • Communicate a clear message to the Tatmadaw, and those who support the Tatmadaw regime, that Canada will not accept that actions constituting a grave breach of international peace and security, resulting in a serious international crisis, are taking place with impunity and total disregard for the will and democratic rights of the people of Myanmar.

  • Align with actions taken by international partners.

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

  • Justice for Victims of Corrupt Foreign Officials Act Canadian Shipping Act

1920px-Flag_of_Myanmar.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Myanmar

  • 4 entities from Myanmar 

Myanmar

Date: January 31, 2022
Nature of Conflict: Breach of International Peace and Security

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Put additional pressure on the Tatmadaw to change its behaviour, including to immediately and genuinely engage with ASEAN-led peace efforts, immediately halting violence, initiating inclusive peace dialogues, and granting unrestricted humanitarian access.

  • Communicate a clear message to the Tatmadaw, and those who support the Tatmadaw regime, that Canada will not accept that actions constituting a grave breach of international peace and security, resulting in a serious international crisis, are taking place with impunity and total disregard for the will and democratic rights of the people of Myanmar.

  • Align Canadian actions with those taken by international partners — specifically to condemn the February 1, 2021, coup one year later.

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

  • Justice for Victims of Corrupt Foreign Officials Act Canadian Shipping Act

1920px-Flag_of_Myanmar.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Myanmar

  • 3 individuals from Myanmar

Central African Republic

Timeframe: 2014-Ongoing

Nature of Conflict: Intrastate

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Cease hostilities

  • Negotiate settlement

  • Peace enforcement

  • Support peace building, good governance, and human rights

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Export and Import Control

*United Nations imposed an arms embargo in 2013

1280px-Flag_of_the_Central_African_Repub

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

  • Asset Freeze

  • Technical and Financial Assistance Freeze

*UN requires a travel ban, GAC has not invoked the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

Guinea-Bissau

Timeframe: 2012-Ongoing
Nature of Conflict: Intrastate and
Unconstitutional Change of 
Government

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Restore constitutional order

  • End looting, including of State assets, human rights violations and abuses, including arbitrary detentions, ill treatment during detention, the repression of peaceful demonstrations and the restrictions on the freedom of movement imposed by the “Military Command”

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

*Since Global Affairs DOES NOT regulate travel bans, Guinea Bissau is not listed among Canadian sanctions

1920px-Flag_of_Guinea-Bissau.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Inadmissibility

  • *United Nations put travel ban in place in 2012 but names for ban not released until 2014. By international law, Canada must prevent the travel to Canada of listed individuals.

Libya II

Timeframe: 2011-Ongoing
Nature of Conflict: Intrastate and
Human Rights Violations

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • End violence

  • Encourage peace and stability

  • Eventual constitutional change in government

  • Ending the illicit export of Libyan petroleum undermined the Libyan Government of National Accord (GNA), and posed a threat to the peace, security and stability of Libya.

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act since 2011

  • Special Economic Measures Act

125px-Flag_of_Libya.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

  • Asset Freeze

  • Technical Assistance Ban

  • Financial Prohibitions 

  • Export and Import Controls

  • Inadmissibility

Russia and Ukraine

Timeframe: 2014-Ongoing
Nature of Conflict: Illegal Annexation of Crimea and Other Regions of Ukraine

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Respond to Russia’s violation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine, and grave human rights violations that have been committed in Russia.

*On August 1, 2017, the Canada-Ukraine Free Trade Agreement (CUFTA) entered into force

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Special Economic Measures Act

  • Export and Import Control

  • Freezing Assets of Corrupt Foreign Officials Act

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

Ukrussia.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Asset freeze

  • Import and export restrictions

  • Financial prohibitions

  • Technical assistance ban

  • Indamissibility

Russia

Timeframe: 2017-Ongoing
Nature of Conflict: Human Rights Violations and Corruption

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • To communicate a clear message to Russia that Canada, along with its like-minded partners, will not accept that ongoing gross and systematic human rights violations continue to take place at the hands of the State with impunity

  • To impose consequences on Russia for its ongoing disregard for human rights and the rule of law.

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Special Economic Measures Act

  • Justice for Victims of Corrupt Foreign Officials Act

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

800px-Flag_of_Russia.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Asset Freeze

  • Inadmissibility

*Sanctions more extensive due to Russian invasion of Ukraine. See page dedicated to sanctions on Russia.

Syria

Timeframe: 2011-Ongoing
Nature of Conflict: Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Violations

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Cease on-going violent crackdown by its military and security forces against Syrians peacefully protesting for democracy and human rights

  • Cease use of chemical weapons
     

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Special Economic Measures Act

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

  • Bank Act

  • Proceeds of Crime Act

  • Insurance Companies Act

  • Cooperative Credit Associations Act

  • Trust and Loans Companies Act

1280px-Flag_of_Syria.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

  • Asset Freeze

  • Technical or Financial Assistance Freeze

  • Financial Prohibitions

  • Export and Import Restrictions on any goods — other than food for human consumption — that are exported, supplied or shipped from Syria after December 23, 2011

  • Luxury goods ban

  • Chemical weapons assistance or precursor agents Freeze

  • Inadmissibility

Tunisia

Timeframe: 2011-Ongoing
Nature of Conflict: Missappropriation of Assets by 
Corrupt Foreign Officials

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Seize assets and property in Canada of individuals named by Tunisia

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Freezing Assets of Corrupt Foreign Officials Act 

225px-Flag_of_Tunisia.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Asset and property Freeze

*Asset and property Freeze: 
Whereas Tunisia has asserted to the Government of Canada, in writing, that persons listed have misappropriated property of Tunisia or have acquired property inappropriately by virtue of their office or a personal or business relationship and have asked the Government of Canada to freeze the property of those persons

 

Egypt

Timeframe: 2011-2016
Nature of Conflict: Missappropriation of Assets by 
Corrupt Foreign Officials

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Seize assets and property in Canada of individuals named by Egypt

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Freezing Assets of Corrupt Foreign Officials Act

255px-Flag_of_Egypt.svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Asset and property Freeze

*Whereas Egypt has asserted to the Government of Canada, in writing, that persons listed have misappropriated property of Egypt, , or have acquired property inappropriately by virtue of their office or a personal or business relationship and have asked the Government of Canada to freeze the property of those persons
 

Zimbabwe

Timeframe: 2008-Ongoing
Nature of Conflict: Human Rights Violations

1920px-Flag_of_Zimbabwe.svg.png

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • End human rights violations, political violence and a worsening humanitarian situation.

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Special Economic Measures Act

  • Export and Import Control

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

  • Asset Freeze

  • Prohibition on Zimbabwean aircraft from flying over or landing in Canada

  • Technical and Financial Assistance Ban

  • Financial Prohibitions

Belarus I

Timeframe: 2007-2017
Nature of Conflict: Human Rights Violations

1920px-Flag_of_Belarus.svg.png

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • End human rights violations including prolonged arbitrary detentions, brutality, intimidation, and the excessive use of force against peaceful protestors

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Export and Import Control

Sanctions Measures:

  • Export Restrictions

Belarus II

Timeframe: 2007-2017
Nature of Conflict: Human Rights Violations

1920px-Flag_of_Belarus.svg.png

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • End human rights violations including prolonged arbitrary detentions, brutality, intimidation, and the excessive use of force against peaceful protestors

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Special Economic Measures Act

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

  • Export and Import Control

Sanctions Measures:

  • Financial Prohibitions

  • Technical Assistance Ban

  • Asset Freeze

  • Export and Import Restrictions

  • Inadmissibility

Belarus 

Date: June 21, 2021
Nature of Conflict: Systematic Human Rights Violations

1920px-Flag_of_Belarus.svg.png

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Put pressure on the Government of Belarus to change its behaviour.

  • Communicate a clear message to the Government of Belarus that Canada will not accept that gross and systematic human rights violations continue to take place at the hands of the State with impunity

  • Align with actions taken by our like-minded partners.

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Special Economic Measures Act

Sanctions Measures:

  • Belarus

  • 17 individuals from Belarus 

  • 5 entities 

Belarus 

Date: August 6, 2021
Nature of Conflict: Systematic Human Rights Violations

1920px-Flag_of_Belarus.svg.png

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Put pressure on the Government of Belarus to change its behaviour.

  • Communicate a clear message to the Government of Belarus that Canada will not accept that gross and systematic human rights violations continue to take place at the hands of the State with impunity

  • Align with actions taken by our like-minded partners.

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Special Economic Measures Act

Sanctions Measures:

  • Import and Export restrictions (insurance and reinsurance, petroleum products, potassium chloride)

Belarus 

Date: December 2, 2021
Nature of Conflict: Systematic Human Rights Violations

1920px-Flag_of_Belarus.svg.png

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Not listed

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Special Economic Measures Act

Sanctions Measures:

  • Belarus

  • 24 individuals from Belarus

  • 7 entities

South Sudan

Timeframe: 2014-Ongoing

Nature of Conflict: Intrastate

Flag_of_South_Sudan.svg.png

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Cease hostilities

  • End violence against civilians

  • End sexual-based violence

  • End human rights violations

  • End use of children as soldiers

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act Since 2015

  • Special Economic Measures Act Since 2014

  • Export and Import Control

  • Justice for Victims of Corrupt Foreign Officials Act 

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

Sanctions Measures:

  • Arms Embargo

  • Asset Freeze - SEMA

  • Export and Import restrictions

  • Technical Assistance Freeze

  • Inadmissibility

Yemen

Timeframe: 2014-Ongoing
Nature of Conflict: Intrastate

800px-Flag_of_Yemen.svg.png

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • End political crisis

  • Cease violence

  • Negotiate a settlement

  • End sexual violence

  • Protect civilians and Yemeni-led political transition process that meets the legitimate demands and aspirations of the Yemeni people

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

  • Export and Import Control

  • Canadian Shipping Act

Sanctions Measures:

  • Asset Freeze

  • Financial Services and Assistance Ban

  • Under section 2 of the Canada Shipping Act, 2001, any operator of an aircraft registered in Canada or any Canadian owner or master of a vessel or Canadian operator of an aircraft to knowingly carry, cause to be carried or permit to be carried, arms and related material, wherever situated, that are destined for a designated person or for a person acting on behalf of or at the direction of a designated person

*United Nations has imposed a Travel Ban, Canada has not

Venezuela

Timeframe: 2017-Ongoing
Nature of Conflict: Unconstitutional Change In Government 

Sanctions Objectives(s):

*2017 Maduro created a National Constituent Assembly (or ANC), which stripped the democratically-elected, opposition-led National Assembly of its powers.

  • Refuse to recognize the legitimacy of the National Constituent Assembly or any of its decisions

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Special Economic Measures Act

  • Justice for Victims of Corrupt Foreign Officials Act

  • Export and Import Control

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

800px-Flag_of_Venezuela_(state).svg.png

Sanctions Measures:

  • Asset freeze

  • Financial Prohibitions

  • Inadmissibility

Mali

Timeframe: 2018-Ongoing
Nature of Conflict: Intrastate

1920px-Flag_of_Mali.svg.png

Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Cease hostilities

  • Restore peace and security 

  • End violations to the peace agreement

  • End international human rights law or international humanitarian law violations

  • End human rights abuses or violations, including those involving the targeting of civilians, including women and children, through the commission of acts of violence (including killing, maiming, torture, or rape or other sexual violence), abduction, enforced disappearance, forced displacement, or attacks on schools, hospitals, religious sites, or locations where civilians are seeking refuge

  • End recruitment and use of child soldiers

Sanctions Instruments:

  • United Nations Act

*United Nations adopted sanctions in 2017

Sanctions Measures:

  • Asset freeze

*United Nations requires a Travel Ban but Canada has no ban listed

Nicaragua

Date: July 14, 2021
Nature of Conflict: Gross and Systematic Human Rights Violations

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Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Apply pressure on the Government of the Republic of Nicaragua to respect its constitutional and international human rights obligations.

  • Communicate a clear message to the Government of the Republic of Nicaragua that Canada stands with the people of Nicaragua and the international community in condemning the ongoing gross and systematic human rights violations committed with impunity at the hands of the State.

  • Raise the costs to the Nicaraguan government of continuing the policies that erode democracy in Nicaragua and deny fundamental human rights of the people of Nicaragua.

  • Send a clear message to the region on the importance Canada places on respect for democracy, rule of law and the ability of all people to participate in free and fair elections.

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Special Economic Measures Act

Sanctions Measures:

  • Nicaragua

  • 15 individuals from Nicaragua 

Nicaragua

Timeframe: 2019-ongoing
Nature of Conflict: Gross and Systematic Human Rights Violations

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Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • End human rights violations including prolonged arbitrary detentions, brutality, intimidation, and the excessive use of force against peaceful protestors

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Special Economic Measures Act

  • Export and Import Control

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

Sanctions Measures:

  • Asset freeze

  • Financial Prohibitions

  • Inadmissibility

Individuals and Entities From China

Timeframe: 2021-Ongoing
Nature of Conflict: Human Rights Violations

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Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • End human rights violations including prolonged arbitrary detentions, brutality, intimidation, and the excessive use of force against peaceful protestors

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Special Economic Measures Act

  • Export and Import Control

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

Sanctions Measures:

  • Asset Freeze

  • Financial Prohibitions

  • Export and Import restrictions

  • Inadmissibility

Individuals From Saudi Arabia

Timeframe: 2017-Ongoing
Nature of Conflict: Human Rights Violations

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Sanctions Objectives(s):

  • Respond to human rights violations

Sanctions Instruments:

  • Justice for Victims of Corrupt Foreign Officials Act

  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

Sanctions Measures:

  • Asset freeze

  • Inadmissibility

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